Khoti la Yugoslavia

Zolakwitsa za kumadzulo: Zotsutsa zotsutsana ndi Milosevic, kumene kulibe 'mboni' zokha


Slobodan Milosevic pokambirana ndi Purezidenti Bill Clinton (December 1995), amene adalamula kuti mabomba a ku Serbia apulumuke m'malo mwa Asilamu ku Balkan. (Chithunzi: (3)). WikiMedia Commons, Public Domain American boma).

Khoti Lalikulu la Yugoslavia ku La Haye, lomwe linasungunuka kumapeto kwa chaka chatha, adayamikiridwa ndi ndondomeko yakhazikitsidwa mu ndale m'mawailesi monga chitsanzo cha chilungamo cha padziko lonse. Zoona, komabe, zimabweretsa zosiyana zenizeni, zomwe zimabisika kwambiri ndi malo omwewo. Mwachitsanzo, anthu ambiri anabisala kuti Khotili linatsimikiza kuti linali lakuda ndi loyera palibe umboni wotsutsana ndi otchedwa 'wochita zachiwawa' Slobodan Milosevic anapezeka. Chithandizo cha Milosevic mwiniwake m'khoti ndi ndende sangathe kutchedwa china chirichonse kupatula chinyengo, chokwiyitsa ndi chonyansa.

'Funso lenileni ndiloti Khoti Losautsa likhoza kupitiriza kwa nthawi yayitali'

Khoti Lalikulu la Yugoslavia linalandira mapeto oyenera 'ndi kudzipha kwa Slobodan Praljak kukhoti. Aliyense ankadabwa kuti akanatha bwanji kubisa poizoni mkati mwake. Malinga ndi mtolankhani investigative Arnold Sandhaus, mu 2002 kwa nthawi yaitali anapezeka pa mlandu wa Milosevic, funso lenileni akhale mmene dziko lino Khoti zankhanza, pamene panalibe kusiyana pakati pa oweruza ndi Maloya, 24 zaka akhoza kumusiya kulamulira yaitali.

Boma la America linaganiza zogawira uthenga wabodza

Sandhaus anaganiza kuti akapezeke pa mayesero munthu pambuyo New York Times inanena kuti boma US anadziphadi taphunzira bungwe mu dzanja onse bwenzi ndi mdani ndi nduna 'uthenga yabodza, kapena nkhani yabodza, kuti Chigumula, kuti asokoneze maganizo a anthu. Tonsefe tikudziwa momwe izi zakhalira bwino, chifukwa ngakhale zofalitsa zathu zokhudzana ndi boma tsopano zimagwira ntchito ngati njira zowonongeka, zomwe zowonongeka zowonongeka zakhala zikutha.

Media imanena za kukonzanso kwa Milosevic

Pa tsamba 1303 la chikhumbo cha 2615 chotsutsika cha Radovan Karadzic mu March 2016 chinali chomveka kuti palibe umboni wa kutsimikizira kwa Slobodan Milosevic akanapezeka. Palibe wolemba ndale kapena thupi lofalitsa nkhani, komabe amaganiza kuti ndi bwino kunena mawu amodzi ponena za kubwezeretsedwa kwa amene amatchedwa 'wopha anthu a ku Balkan', monga momwe West adamutchulira. Milosevic anapezeka atafa m'chipinda chake mu 2006 ali ndi zaka za 64 pansi pa zifukwa zokayikitsa.

Milosevic nthawi zonse adagwidwa

Pamsonkhano wa khoti mu chipinda chaching'ono, anthu ndi atolankhani ankatetezedwa ndi khoma lamagalasi lowonetsa zipolopolo, ndikuyang'ana Milosevic mosavuta. Sandhaus akulemba kuti mosiyana ndi zomwe nyuzipepala zimafalitsa, Milosevic ankayendetsedwa bwino, pamene nthawi zonse ankasokonezeka ndikukhala chete, nthawi zina ngakhale kwenikweni pochotsa maikolofoni yake. Mobwerezabwereza anasonyeza mboni motsutsana naye, amene otchedwa "kupululutsa" ndi "kuyeretsa fuko" anali kuthandiza kutsimikizira, ndicho maso ndi pakamwa zonse mano, osati kutsutsa mafunso zake ndi chidziwitso.

A Mboni samawoneka kanthu

Mboni zambiri, zomwe zinali 'kuseri kwa makatani awo' kuti zikhale chitetezo, sankatha kupereka yankho lodalirika pa mafunso ophweka a Milosevic, kotero kuti chithunzi chosiyana cha zomwe zinachitika ku Balkans mwamsanga chinawonekera. Mlaliki adalengeza ngati dokotala akutsutsa chifukwa cha mafuko, koma pamene Milosevic anatchula dzina ndi malo ake ku chipatala chake, umboniwu unavomereza kuti wakhala akugwira ntchito kumeneko monga dokotala, ndipo adalandirabe penshoni yake yachibadwa.

Mboni zinali zochititsa chidwi kwambiri chifukwa chosatha kutchula malo ndi masiku. Wina amene adanena kuti adawona momwe asirikali a ku Serbian m'mudzi mwawo adachita zipolowe adayenera kuvomereza kuti adabisala m'chipinda chapansi pa nthawiyo. Izi zikusonyeza kuwonetsetsa kwapakati pa (NATO). Mfundo yakuti "kuthamangitsidwa" kunakhala chitetezo cha nzika chifukwa cha mabombawa a NATO. Ndipo pamene adaphedwa, adazindikira kuti a KLA (omwe adagonjetsedwa kumadzulo kwa Africa, omwe ndi Asilamu a Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) adakhala pafupi. Komanso, mboni zingapo zinapeza nkhani yawo 'kuti ikhale yabwino'.

Mafunso okhudza zachiwawa A Albania ndi NATO sakufunidwa

"Tinawona masewera achiwawa ndi masewera, kumene Khotili linayesetsa kufotokozera kuti zigawenga za UCK ndi NATO sizilipo," akutero Sandhaus. 'Palibe mboni imodzi yomwe idadziwa UCK fighters, ndipo palibe amene adamvapo kanthu za machitidwe a UCK. Kuomba mabomba makilomita angapo kutalika sikudamveka, ndipo sikukanakhala kukambirana panyumba. Mwachiwonekere, anthu ku Netherlands anadziŵa bwino za izi kuposa pomwepo. '

Mafunso okhudza KLA / KLA kapena NATO anachotsedwa pambali ndi woweruza May ngati 'alibe.' Izi sizimagwira ntchito nthawi zonse, monga momwe zinalili ndi munthu wina yemwe adatsutsa kuti alibe mgwirizano ndi UCK, ndipo sanamvepo za bungwe limenelo. Pamene Milosevic adamfunsa ngati mwana wake, yemwe amadziwika ndi dzina lake, analidi membala wa UCK, mboniyo inavomereza pomwepo. Komabe, mwamunayo anafulumizitsa kunena kuti panalibe wina wa UCK m'mudzi mwawo, ngakhale kuti pali chikumbutso kwa ... mamembala a UCK omwe wagwa pamudzi wapakatikati mwa mudziwo.

Chiwembu chinasokoneza kuti chidziwitse zabodza

Mayi Milosevic atangothamangitsira mboni mu ngodya mwanjira imeneyi, Woweruza anadzigwira mwamphamvu, ndipo anatseka pakamwa pake. Chofunika kwambiri chinali kulimba mtima kwa Radomar Markovic, mkulu wa chinsinsi chomwe anabweretsedwa ku La Haye monga umboni wa korona kuti atsimikizire kuti Milosevic adapereka lamulo loyeretsa mitundu. Koma kudabwa kwa Khoti Lalikulu, adaganiza zowona zoona pofotokozera momwe adasinthidwira kuchitira umboni motsutsana ndi Milosevic. Izi zinabwera kwa iye kubwezera kwa oweruza: zaka 40 m'ndende. Ngati iye adachitira umboni zabodza za Milosevic, adapatsidwa chitetezo chokwanira.

Oweruza anateteza mboni zosakhulupirira

Umboni wochititsa chidwi womwe uli pamtunda wa mamita a 400 momwe asilikali a ku Serbia adakankhidwira m'nkhalango. Mmodzi wa Amici Curiae (amilandu atatu osankhidwa ndi Khotili omwe anali ndi udindo woonetsetsa kuti ndondomekoyi ikuyenda bwino) anafunsa momwe zinalili zotheka kuyang'ana mumitengo yambiri motalika kwambiri. Pa chithunzi mungathe kuona momwe dzenjeli linayandidwira ndi mitengo yayikulu kwambiri.

Mnyamatayo anayankha kuti mitengoyo inalibe masamba, ngakhale kuti inali 24 March ndipo kasupe m'dera limenelo wayamba kale. Woweruza May adawonanso mphepo yamkuntho, ndipo adalowererapo. Mwamunthu woopsya adafunsa Amicus Curiae ngati akadakayikira zomwe mboniyo adanena. Komabe, sanafunse funso losavuta, lomwe linalibe yankho lodalirika.

Kuyesera kukayikira ziwawa za NATO

Malingana ndi Sandhaus, chitetezo cha Milosevic chinaonekera kwambiri. 'Zoonadi, chirichonse kuchokera kwa osumawo chinachotsedwa m'manja. Mipingo yambiriyi inakhala yosakhulupirika, chifukwa oweruzawo anagwiritsa ntchito njira zina. ' Izi zinaphatikizapo kuperekedwa kwa 120 zolembedwa mawu ochitira umboni ngati zolemba zothandizira. Izi zinavomerezedwa ngakhale kuti maumboni a Milosevic ndi Amici akutsutsa. Sandhaus: 'Tinali kupitirizabe kuchitira nkhondo nkhondo imene anthu ambiri ankagwiritsira ntchito ku NATO.'

Chinyengo

Milosevic ankazunzidwa panthawi ya mlandu. Mchipinda chake anali kuyang'anitsitsa maola a 24 tsiku ndi makamera, ngati akanatha kulandira alendo kamodzi pa sabata - ngati izo zinaloledwa - ndipo ngakhale adokotala nthawi zambiri ankamukana ngakhale kuti anali ndi vuto la mtima. Telefoni ya ndende, kulankhulana kwake kokha ndi dziko lakunja, nthawi zambiri inali 'yopanda pake', ndipo zokambirana zomwe zikanakhoza kuchitika zinachotsedwa mwadzidzidzi; Ulendo wa mlungu wa mkazi wake unakanidwa, ndipo ngakhale uphungu wake Ognanovic anayenera kuyembekezera nthawi iliyonse ataloledwa ku khoti. Ngakhalenso kuyenda kochepa kwambiri m'bwalo lamilandu, Milosevic anadzudzula anthu otetezeka.

Chifukwa chiyani 'kutseguka ndi koona'?

Pakati pa magawowa, Milosevic sanapumire kwachiwiri, pamene aphungu ankaloledwa 'kutsitsimutsana' wina ndi mnzake. Kulola maumboni ochuluka olemba umboni kunamukakamiza kuti adutse mulu wonse wa mafotokozedwe payekha madzulo, pambuyo pa nthawi yayitali, yolemetsa.

Kuwonjezera pa magawo otseguka, palinso ndondomeko zotsekedwa zomwe 'mboni zotetezedwa', popanda dzina komanso opanda nkhope, zinayankhula. Iwo adalimbikitsidwa kuti apange mawu okhwimitsa, omwe adalonjezedwa kuti adzatetezedwa. Komabe, ofalitsa nkhani adalankhula za "kuyesedwa koyera komanso kosayenerera, chitsanzo cha chilungamo cha padziko lonse chomwe palibe amene angatsutse."

Nkhondo pambuyo pa zithunzi zosinthidwa

Wolemba milandu wa ku France Vergès, yemwe anabweretsa chigamulo cha Khoti Lalikulu ku Khoti Loona za Ufulu wa ku Ulaya, sanavomerezedwe ku Milosevic, motero sanawononge njirayi. Amnesty International nayenso sanafune kumuchitira kanthu. Panthawiyi, izo zinapitirira Komiti Yadziko Lonse Yoteteza Solobodani Milosevic ndondomeko yosindikizira yomwe mawonetsero amasonyezedwa ku British Channel ITN kuchokera ku 1992, yomwe inachititsa chidwi, kupyolera mu zithunzi zojambulidwa, kuti kunali msasa wa ndende wa Bosnia ku Serbia. Mphindi 20 (!) Atatha kufalitsa mafano amenewo, Pulezidenti George Bush Sr. adati 'Serbia idzalipira mtengo wake' ...

Kuseka kokongola

Malo a Hague a 'chilungamo padziko lonse' analidi zochitika zochititsa chidwi, zoopsa. Mlaliki anafunsidwa mobwerezabwereza momwe adadziwira kuti anali asilikali omwe adalowa m'mudzi mwawo. "Chifukwa anali kuvala yunifolomu." "Ndi mtundu wanji?" "Sindikumvetsa funsoli." Umboni uyenera kupereka yankho ku funso lobwerezabwereza la mtundu wa yunifolomu yomwe inalipo nthawiyo. Ngakhale pamene zithunzi za mafananidwe osiyanasiyana zinasonyezedwa, 'mboni' sankadziwa kusiyana.

Kutsiriza kumabisika, nkhondo yowonongeka ya Kumadzulo nkhondo ikupitirira

Kwenikweni, izi sizinali zovuta, koma ndilo "krimi", momwe kunyozedwa kumene ndi lingaliro la chilungamo ndi umunthu, Sandhaus anamaliza. 'Nditabwerera kunyumba madzulo ndikuwona momwe nyuzipepala inalembera tsiku limene ndikuyendera, ndinadziwanso za mphamvu zazikulu za ofalitsa. Ndipo tsopano, pambuyo pa zaka 24 za nkhondo yosalungama, pambuyo pa mboni za 400, zikalata zambirimbiri ndi mavidiyo a 200, Khotilo likuvomereza kuti silinapeze umboni wotsutsana ndi Milosevic. Mgwirizano wa Western Union wakhala wamutsutsa kale, koma tsopano iwo ali chete. Mtendere uwu ndi gawo la (kusokoneza bodza ndi nkhani zabodza) nkhondo. "

Komanso pa mlandu wa Mladic zinaonekeratu kuti kuphedwa kwa midzi ya Serbian (Christian) ndi 'ankhondo pansi pa chivundikiro cha Islam' - zomwe zinali zankhondo za Kumadzulo - chinali chifukwa chenicheni cha nkhondo ya Balkan. (onani chithunzi pansipa). Izi zinali zokhudzana ndi mauthenga a zakumadzulo, Asilamu okha ndiwo omwe amazunzidwa, ndipo pafupifupi chirichonse chomwe chiri choyera ndi chachikhristu / chosamalitsa komanso / kapena chosagwirizana ndi Russia ndi "cholakwika" ndi " wolakwira '.

Nkhani yapamwambayi ndikutembenuzidwa kwa nkhani yapachiyambi fassadenkratzer.wordpress.com, lolembedwa ndi Arnold Sandhaus

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