Kodi Friesland, chinenero chawo komanso chikhalidwe chawo chomwe chinkachitika pachilumba cha Iceland chotchedwa Frisland chinali chiyani?

Ada mangala ku POYAMBA by pa 7 January 2017 7 Comments

Momwe mbiri yakale ingakhalire yonyenga ikuwoneka kuti ikutsimikiziridwa ndi kupezeka kwa chilumba cha Frisland pamapu akale omwe amangowoneka kuti ali m'malaibulale apadziko lonse. Kodi munayamba mwadzifunsapo kuti n'zotheka kuti pang'ono wamakani wowerengeka mu kumpoto kwa Netherlands amapezeka chinenero china chosiyana ndi kulankhula Dutch ndi pafupi kwambiri ndi English? Ku England pali mawu akuti 'Chifisiki ndi Chingerezi monga batala ndi tchizi'; kutembenuzidwa 'ChiFrisian ndi Chingerezi monga mafuta ndi tchizi. " Kupezeka kwambiri umene anam'patsa ine mu June 2014 ndi kum'mwera kwa Greenland (ndi Iceland) ndi chilumba kukopedwa pa mapu mpaka chaka 1680, lomwe linali lalikulu kuposa Iceland ndipo wokhala ndi anthu amalinyero. Chilumbachi chikanakhala chiwerengero cha anthu ambiri ndipo chiyenera kuti chinali ndi 500 chikwi ku 1 miliyoni. Ndiko isanafike nthawi imeneyo zokongola kwambiri. Chokayikira chiripo kuti chilumbachi chimagwedezeka pamphindi wina chifukwa cha chitsanzo, monga seququake.

mapu a friesland

Chifukwa chenichenicho cha kusowa kwa chilumba cha Frisland ndi chodziwikiratu. Komabe, mabuku ena a mbiriyakale amasonyeza kuti anthu a ku Frisian anayamba kuyesa ku England ndikupita kumpoto kwa Netherlands. Tsopano ife tonse tikudziwa kuti Achifrisisi Boniface adaphedwa khalani pafupi chaka cha 754. Izi zikutanthauza kuti a Frisian anakhazikitsanso kunja kwawo. Mwayi ndikuti iwo adagwira kumpoto kwa Netherlands ndikugulitsa kuchokera kumeneko.

Redbad2Mbali ina ya mbiri yomwe ikubwera ndi kupezeka kwa chilumba ichi mosiyana kwambiri ndi nkhani ya kupezeka kwa America. Mwachidziwitso, mbadwa zakale zaku Indiya za America zikanadanenapo za anthu a ku Scandinavia omwe anali kuyandikira ku continent Columbus asanachite izi. Amwenye a ku America akanadanenapo za 'nyemba'. Izi zikulongosola zambiri, chifukwa mfumu ya Frisike ankatchedwa Redbad; amadziwika bwino kwambiri dzina lake Radboud. Redbad ndi chiphuphu cha 'ndevu zofiira'. Malingana ndi Wikipedia, palibe chomwe chimadziwika ndi achinyamata a Radboud ndi zaka zachinyamata. Zikuwonekabe ngati mbiri ya anthu a ku Frisiya adasokonezeka mwadala. Ngakhale m'mabuku am'mbuyo amanena kuti iye anali mwana wa Aldgisl, palibe umboni uliwonse wa izi m'mabuku a nthawi imeneyo. Mosakayikira iye anakulira m'banja la olamulira a ku Frisian ndipo sanafike ku mphamvu mpaka pafupi 680, pambuyo pa imfa ya Aldgisl.

Komanso, Wikipedia imanena [quote] Radboud akuwoneka ngati wolamulira wamphamvu, koma chiyambi cha ulamuliro wake chinali chokhumudwitsa. Iye mobwerezabwereza anathamangira kukangana nawo Ufumu wa Frankish ndipo amayenera kukwaniritsa udindo wapadera kwa mnansi wake wamphamvu. Pakati pa 688 ndi 695 anagonjetsedwa mobwerezabwereza ndi mwamuna wa khoti la ku Frank Pepijn van Herstal, kuphatikizapo nkhondo ya Dorestad. Pakati pa zaka zapakati pa makumi asanu ndi anai, Radboud ndi Pepijn anapanga mtendere, ndipo Radboud ikanaleka Fresia kukhala yoyipa, gawo lakumwera kwa Oude Rijn. Chimodzi mwa mtendere umenewu chinali mapeto a ukwati pakati pa mwana wamkazi wa Radboud Theudesinda anakomana Grimoald, mwana wa Pepijn van Herstal, yemwe anaphedwa mu 714. Ukwati uwu sudziwika ngati ana abadwa.

Mulimonsemo, ndizodabwitsa kuti anthu aang'ono awa ochokera kumpoto kwa Netherlands anali ndi mafumu. Mwina mungadabwe kuti mafumuwa ankakhala kuti? Sitikuwona nyumba zachifumu za anthu olemekezeka omwe ali m'dera lino la kumpoto. Kodi chiganizocho chikanakhalapo pa chisumbu cha Frisland? Kodi ndiwo maziko a anthu awa? Zikuwoneka kuti ulamuliro wa Winston Churchill wakhala ukugwiritsidwa ntchito apa: "Mbiri yakalembedwa ndi wopambana. " Funso lokhalo ndiloti kupambana uku ndi Ufumu wa ku Frank kunakhudzana ndi ulamuliro weniweni kapena ngati chigonjetsochi chikanatha kupezeka chifukwa chakuti chilumba cha Frisland chinaopsezedwa ndi masoka achilengedwe padziko lapansi. Mwinamwake, Ufumu wa ku Frank ndiye unachita mwayiwu ndipo unagonjetsa gawo la kumpoto kwa Netherlands komwe kunkalamulidwa ndi a Frisian. N'kutheka kuti mbiri yakale idasintha ndipo a Frisian ali ndi mbiri yeniyeni yofanana ndi inu werengani apa pa Wikipedia. Mwina padzakhala nthawi kuti a Frisian apeze mizu yawo enieni.

frisland3

Muzolemba zomwe zingapezeke pansi izi (Lotchedwa 'Friesland: Dziko limene nthawi anaiwala "), wolemba ananena kuti British anali kuyesera kuti kugona amati chilumba Frisland, koma kuti sizolondola.

Chilumba cha Friesland (kalembedwe ka wamba), kuphatikiza Estotiland oyamba anadza pansi tcheru boma mu 1558 pamene ena Caterino Zeno khadi ndi nkhani ndi pansiyi lofalitsidwa mu Venice. Iye anafotokoza ulendo wopita kumpoto wakutali wopangidwa mu 1380 (cholakwika, chaka chenicheni chinali 1390) ndi kholo lake, wotchedwa Nicolo Zeno. Zeno uyu poyamba adakakamizika kupita ku chilumba cha Friesland ndi mkuntho. Mapu omwe ali mkatiwo amasonyeza chilumba chooneka ngati timakona ting'onoting'ono timene timakhala timene timapanga kuchokera kumpoto kupita kummwera. Ndizochepa pang'ono mu kukula kwake, koma ndizitali kuposa Iceland ndipo ziri pafupi pamalo pomwe Rockall Plateau imayima. Wolamulira wa Friesland mu 1380 (mwachitsanzo 1390) ankatchedwa Zichmni. Anayanjana ndi Nicolo pozizwa ndi luso la amalinyero a Venetian. Ubwenzi watsopanowu unathandiza Zichmni kupititsa mphamvu zake pazilumba zambiri zapafupi. Chotsatira Nicolo anawombera. Nicolo analemba m'bale wake Antonio ku Venice. Izi zinafika ku Friesland ndipo adagwirizana. Onse awiri ankakhala ku Friesland ku 1384 (mwinamwake, kwenikweni, 1396), pamene Nicolo anamwalira. Antonio anakhalabe akutumikira Zichmni kwa zaka khumi. Mu 1394 (yolondola 1406) Antonio adabwerera ku Venice, komwe akufotokozera nkhani yake kwa mbale wake wachitatu, Carlo.

rockall plateau

Mapu a Zeno amasonyeza chilumba chaching'ono kumpoto chakumadzulo kwa Friesland chotchedwa Icaria, komanso mpaka kumadzulo kwa Estonia. Estotiland akuwonetsedwa pang'onopang'ono. Mu nthawi ya Dr Dee nyengo iyi idatchedwa Nova Scotia. Kum'mwera kuli dera lina laling'ono dzina lake Drogio. Izi ndizo zomwe tikudziwa tsopano monga Massachusetts Bay. Dr Dee wa Greenland sali pa mapu ndipo akuwoneka kuti ndi Baffin Island pamapu awa (atapatsidwa udindo). Kummawa kwa Friesland mungathe kuona madera otchuka a Norway, Denmark, Scotland ndi Shetlands (otchedwa Estland). Pakati pa mapiri awiriwa muli chilumba chaching'ono chotchedwa Podanda. Ziyenera kutchulidwa kuti sizingatheke kuti Azungu anayenda ulendo wopita ku Nova Scotia ndi Massachusetts asanafike Columbus. Izi sizikutchulidwa kulikonse. Tikudziwa kuti ma Vikings adayandikira kwambiri ndipo anamanga nyumba ku Newfoundland chaka chonse cha 1000. Ofufuza ena amakayikira kwambiri kuti oyendetsa ngalawa akuyenda ulendo wawo nthawi zonse, ndipo Bristol ndi malo awo oyendamo. Chinsinsi chenicheni cha khadi la Zeno ndi zoona: Friesland inali chiyani ndipo inapita kuti? Kuchokera m'zaka za m'ma 1600 Friesland anayamba kuoneka ngati mzimu pa mapu onse ofalitsidwa. Nthaŵi yonseyi inali kum'mwera kwa Iceland, koma palibe amene anadziŵa kumene. Malingaliro amayamba ngati atha pang'ono kusefukira kuyambira 1380 (yolondola 1390).

Mu chilumba cha 1578 chaching'ono kwambiri chinawoneka pamalo a Friesland omwe akukayikidwa. Pa September 12 m'chaka chimenecho, Richard Newton, mkulu wa asilikali Emmanuel (imodzi mwa ngalawa khumi ndi zisanu zomwe ziri mbali ya ulendo wotsogoleredwa ndi Sir Martin Frobisher) ulendo womwe chilumba ichi chinapezeka. Iye anautcha chilumba cha Buss, molingana ndi mtundu wa ngalawa yomwe iye ankayenda. M'magazini yake analemba kuti: The Busse, kapena Bridgewater, pamene anabwerera kunyumba, kupita South Eastwarde kapena Freseland, anadetsa lalikulu Ilande mu latitude kapena Degree, amene analibebe kale, ndi zina zotero. , wodzala ndi matabwa, komanso countrie champion.

Patapita zaka khumi ndi zisanu ndi zitatu, Thomas Wiars adalongosola chilumba ichi cha Buss ngati chilumba chozunguliridwa ndi ayezi yaikulu. Izi zikutsutsana ndi kufotokoza koyambirira kwa chilumbachi. Kenako mwadzidzidzi, pa 1 July 1606, chilumba cha Buss chinawonekera ndi James Hall. Izi zinalongosola malowo kumadzulo kusiyana ndi momwe akuganizira panopa. Komabe, ngakhale kuti amayesetsa kuti apeze, chilumba cha Buss sichinali chosatheka ndi 1671 pamene Captain John Shepherd sanangodziwa, komanso anachifufuza. Iye adalongosola kuti ndi nsomba zambiri, koma ngati palibe nsomba zambiri.

Mu 13 May 1675 mwapatsidwa Mfumu Charles II wokwatibwa ndi Buss Island ku kampani Hudson a Bay, amene anakhazikitsidwa mu 1670 kugwiritsa ntchito malonda mchere, ndi malipiro a m'madera osiyanasiyana kumpoto (omwe awonongedwa ngati kampani Canada) . Mwachionekere, Charles ankaganiza kuti anali ndi ufulu wochita zimenezi ndi cholowa cha Mfumu Arthur, amene akuti adagonjetsa dziko la kumpoto zaka chikwi zisanachitike. Ngakhale ziyenera kuzindikiranso kuti Crown Scotland inati ndipamwamba pamwamba pa madzi akummwera kuyambira 1476. Charles II, ndithudi, anali mfumu ya England ndi Scotland. Kampani ya Hudson's Bay inapereka mfumu £ 65 pachilumbacho. Mu 1676, komabe, iwo analephera kuchipeza. Mu 1720, thandizo la ndalama la boma la 378.000 linafunsidwa kuti liziyendetsedwa. Pempholo linakanidwa mwamsanga. Koma ku 1770 panali anthu omwe ankanena kuti kampaniyi ikubisa malo a Buss pachilumbachi, kuti asunge ndalama pazogulitsa. Kotero mu 1791 kampaniyo inalengeza kuti, monga momwe zilili, 'palibe chilumbacho chiripo' (osati tsopano pamwamba pa madzi ngati kulipo). Mu 1934 kampaniyo inanena kuti inali 'chilumba cha nthano kumpoto kwa Atlantic'.

Zonsezi zosiyana zochokera ku chilumba cha Friesland ndi Buss zimapereka nkhani yogwirizana. Mu 1380 (kumanja 1390) Friesland anali wamkulu mokwanira ndi mizinda ndi ulimi ndi kukhala ndi wolamulira wotchedwa Zichmni, umene unali ndi mphamvu zokwanira kugonjetsa zilumba wapafupi. Mu 1578 iyo inamera ku chilumba chaching'ono kwambiri, chomwecho, chomwecho, chikadali chonde komanso chamatabwa. Mu 1589 (zaka khumi ndi zitatu zokha kenako) idali kuzungulira malo akuluakulu a ayezi ndipo mu 1671 munalibe komanso opanda pake. Sichidawonekenso. Ofufuza ambiri anafika pamapeto omveka bwino, akuti anali ataponyedwa pang'onopang'ono m'nyanja. Mwina pangakhalebe dontho laling'ono lomwe likuoneka ngati Rockall. Rockall inalumikizidwa ndi United Kingdom mu 1972. Ndilo 'chilumba chakutali cha Scotland', kumadzulo kwa Scotland ndi kum'mawa kwa Norway. Ndi mamita ochepa okha m'mimba mwake sitingathe kukhalamo.

Khadi la Zeno:

mapu_by_nicolo_zeno_1558-friesland

Zowonjezera mndandanda wamakalata: Wikipedia, Wikipedia, mbiri.com

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  1. JorisTruthseeker analemba kuti:

    Osatchulidwa: Afrizi ku Germany ndi Denmark. Zikuonekeratu kuti panali anthu omwe afika pamapiri a kum'mwera kwa kumene adakhala ndipo anafika kumeneko ....

  2. Averroes analemba kuti:

    Mbiri yonse yamakono ndi bodza, malingana ngati umunthu umachotsedwa ku choonadi sudzazindikira chomwe moyo weniweni uli. Iwo amafotokoza Zaka zapakati ngati "mibadwo yamdima", koma mibadwo yamdima imeneyo siinakhalepopo.

    Nkhondo zambiri padziko lino lapansi zikutsutsana ndi choonadi, kuwala kotero kuti bodza likhoza kukhala lalikulu ndi lophatikizidwa ndi wopambana (onani mawu a Churchill). Ndicho chifukwa chake tataya chiyambi cha mitundu yambiri ya anthu ndi zikhalidwe zofanana, zinenero, zodabwitsa zamakono pa nthawi.

    Munthu yemwe akufuna kudziwa za chiyambi ndi (masamu) zodziwika za nyumba za monolithic padziko lino lapansi ndikupangira buku lolembedwa ndi Carl Munck:

    "Code" gawo 1 kapena 3 | Matrix Amawululidwa

  3. SalmonInClick analemba kuti:

    Pamene dziko lonse la Europe likuchepa pang'onopang'ono, kufulumira kukudza kuganiza za dera lokhazikika ku dziko la Basque / Catalonia. Chigawo cha Frisian, Frisia:

  4. SalmonInClick analemba kuti:

    Chingelezi chakale ndi chinenero chofanana kwambiri ndi Old Frisian, onsewa amapanga mbali ya West Germanic nthambi ya German, zilankhulo za banja la chinenero cha Indo-European.

    The Proto-m'mayiko a azungu anali okamba za chinenero Proto-m'mayiko a ku Ulaya (chitumbuwa). Kudziwa za izo kumabwera makamaka kuchokera kumangidwe a zinenero. Malinga ndi ena Akatswiri, okamba chitumbuwa sangathe ankaganiza kuti anali wosakwatiwa, anthu kuuzindikira kapena fuko, koma anali gulu la Chiwerengero mwachisawawa zokhudzana makolo kuti kenako, akadali pang'ono mbiri isanayambe, Mkuwa Age m'mayiko a azungu. Komabe, zimenezi alibe akatswiri a zinenero, monga proto-zinenero jini masewera zatenga yaing'ono m'madera Hrs pa zochepa kwambiri nthawi span, ndipo jini masewera chonenedwa ndi madera logwirizana zoals limodzi laling'ono fuko.

    The kusintha zotsatirazi amadziwika kapena zowauza zinachitikira m'mbiri ya Proto-Germany m'lingaliro onse ku mapeto a Proto-m'mayiko a ku Ulaya kuti poti Proto-Germany Anayamba gawanikani m'zilembo matanthauzo unintelligible.

  5. marijke analemba kuti:

    Nkhaniyi ikudabwitsa kwa ine ndekha, osadziwika konse. Ineyo mwini Friesland mbali zonse, ndipo ndingakhale mbali zonse za banja kuyambira 1920 amakhala kum'mwera chakum'mawa kwa Netherlands ndi zachirendo kuti Elfstedentocht ndinali m'mphepete mwa mpando wanga tsiku yonse, chaka ndikuyembekeza izo akupitiriza / Ngakhale jaaaaren ndimalira kuti ine ndimakonda Iceland, koma palibe amene amafuna izo, chifukwa iwo amaganiza kuti kukhala ozizira kwambiri, anthu ambiri tsopano amakonda kamodzi kwa dziko kumene yofunda ali ... bwino. Pali zambiri zomwe zasungidwa mu majini a anthu kuposa momwe mukuganizira. Nkhani yabwino Martin, zikomo!

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