Kodi vuto la nayitrogeni, chifukwa chiyani alimi akudandaula ndi chiyani ndikuchepetsa?

Ada mangala ku NEWS ANALYZES by pa 7 November 2019 11 Comments

gwero: nos.nl

Zikuwoneka ngati vuto lalikulu! Alimi onse mwadzidzidzi ayenera kuchepetsa nayitrogeni. Liwu loti 'nayitrogeni' liri ndi dzina loti 'subocate' lokha ndipo izi zimapangitsa munthu wamba mumsewu kuganiza kuti tikuchita ndi chinthu chomwe tonse tizingolimbana nacho. Mwina ambiri amagwirizanitsa mawu ndi CO2 ndipo kusiyana sikudziwika. Nitrogen kwenikweni ndi chinthu choyambirira m'chilengedwe. Mawu akuti 'nitrogen' amatanthauza atomu yomwe imatha kupezeka mwachilengedwe monga mawonekedwe omangidwa (ngati molekyulu). Chifukwa chake, monga mlimi, simungathe kuchepetsa nayitrogeni. Mwachitsanzo, mutha kuchepetsa ammonia. Amia NH₃ imakhala yofanana ndipo imapezeka, mwachitsanzo, mbuzi za ng'ombe. Kuti boma likufuna kuchita china chochepetsera nayitrogeni mwachidziwikire chisankho cha NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming) chasewera anthu pamlingo wocheperako. Kuchepetsa kwa nayitrogeni kwenikweni sikutanthauza kanthu konse. Mumachepetsa chiyani mpweya wa nayitrogeni, ammonia of Chimodzi mwazinthu zambiri momwe nayitrogeni amapezeka?

gwero: indiamart.com

Mukudziwa kuti nayitrogeni wabwino kwambiri kuchokera kuzinthu zomwe zimapanikizika kwambiri m'botolo ndipo muyenera kuyikhuthulira ndi magolovesi (kapena monga chithunzi kuchokera m'botolo lotayika), chifukwa mukapanda apo, zala zanu zimayimitsa: nitrogen gesi (N2). Izi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mwachitsanzo kuchotsa ma warts. Nitrogen itangotuluka m'botolo lopanikizika kwambiri, imayamba kuwira ndikuwuluka. Ili ndi kutentha kotentha kwa -195,8 ° C ndipo ndiye kutentha komwe nitrogen imakhala madzi. Mpweya wa nitrojeni ndiye wozizira kwambiri ndipo nthawi yomweyo umayamba kutuluka m'mwamba panja. Kusungika kwambiri m'mabotolo achitsulo cholimba kumapangitsa kuti madzi ake asungunuke. Ili ndi lamulo lakuthupi.

Tinkadziwa kale kuti tiyenera kuchepetsa CO2. CO2 ilibe chochita ndi mpweya wa nayitrogeni (N2). CO2 imatanthawuza mpweya woipa. Chifukwa chake mawuwo adapangidwa motere: di-oxide imayimira mpweya wa 2x. Atomu ya kaboni yokhala ndi maatomu a oxygen awiri omwe amaphatikizika pamenepo. Carbon dioxide imapangidwa ndi mafuta oyaka omwe ali ndi ma atomu a kaboni. Petroli, palafini ndi dizilo zonse zili ndi maatomu a kaboni. Molekyu yamafuta amapangidwa, mwa zinthu zina, ma atomu a kaboni ndipo, ikawotchedwa mlengalenga (mpweya, kukhala mpweya wa O2), CO2 imapangidwa ndi kuyaka kwathunthu komanso kaboni monoxide (CO) imatha kutuluka ndi kuyaka kwathunthu. Wotsirizirazi nthawi zina amapezeka m'nyumba zotenthetsera mpweya m'nyumba, kuchititsa kubwebweta. Pamenepo mutha kuwona ulumikizano wapansi pakati pa nayitrogeni ndi CO2. Mwamwayi komanso mdziko lenileni, awiriwa alibe chilichonse chogwirizana.

Ngati alimi ayenera kuchepetsa nayitrogeni, ayenera kuchepetsa china chake chomwe tanthauzo lake silimveka bwino. Izi ndichifukwa choti alimi samatulutsa mpweya wa nayitrogeni. Mpweya wa nitrogeni ndi mpweya wabwino kwambiri ndipo umapanga 78,1% ya kuchuluka kwathunthu kwa mlengalenga. Dziwani kuti atomu imatha kupezeka mwachilengedwe mogwirizana ndi maatomu ena. Monga atomu ya oxygen (O) pokhapokha, mwachitsanzo, mpweya wa okosijeni (O2) kapena m'madzi ukapezeka (H2O). Ma nitrogen omwe amapanga nthawi zonse amasinthana pakati pamlengalenga ndi zinthu zamoyo. Naitrogeni iyenera kukonzedwa koyamba kapena "kukhazikitsidwa" mu mawonekedwe ogwiritsira ntchito chomera, nthawi zambiri ammonia. Amoni ndizomwe alimi (mwina ng'ombe zawo) amatulutsa. Amoni ndiwothandiza ndipo ndiwothandiza kwa zomera, ndichifukwa chake alimi amafalitsa feteleza padziko lapansi.

chitsime: wikipedia.org

Ammonia akamilidwa ndi mbewu, imagwiritsidwa ntchito kupangira mapuloteni. Zomerazi zimabowoleredwa ndi nyama zomwe zimagwiritsa ntchito ma nitrogen kuti apange mapuloteni awoawo ndi zotulutsa zinyalala za nayitrogeni (ammonia). Pomaliza, zinthuzi zimafa ndikuwola, zimagwirira oxidation komanso chilengedwe, ndikupereka mpweya wa nayitrogeni (N2) mumlengalenga. Mzere wodabwitsa komanso wofunikira.

Monga CO2, palibe chilichonse chowopsa kapena chowopsa pa mpweya wa nayitrogeni. M'malo mwake, gasi wa nayitrogeni ndi mpweya wa 'inert' womwe mwachilengedwe sukakamizidwa kulowa mu mankhwala ndi zinthu zina. Chifukwa chake sizowopsa, zopanda poizoni, zopanda pake ndipo timapumira tsiku lonse; monga mpweya. Mpweya womwewo womwe umapangidwanso ndi mitengo chifukwa cha kuyamwa kwa CO2. Magesi onse a CO2 ndi nayitrogeni ndi mipweya yabwino komanso yabwino, ndipo andale tsopano (ndi magulu ankhondo) amati ndi owopsa. Tikutero chifukwa maboma padziko lonse lapansi asokoneza asayansi kuti apangitse nkhaniyi kukhala yodalirika, pomwe sipangakhale chidziwitso chabwinobwino, chaukadaulo kapena chofotokozera. Malipoti omwe angawonetse kuti panali CO2 yochulukirapo mlengalenga panthawi yotentha Padziko Lapansi, iwonetsa kuti CO2 ndizotsatira zamayendedwe a dzuwa osati zomwe zimayambitsa. Ndife mboni zamatsenga a sayansi pakubweretsa dongosolo la misonkho yapadziko lonse ndi dongosolo lomwe ndalama za aliyense zingatsatidwe (ndalama za blockchain).

Kuyambira 2015, alimi akhala akuchita pulogalamu ya PAS (Nitrogen Approach Program). Tikuwona ziwonetsero za masabata angapo apitawa chifukwa cha kukhazikitsidwa kwa zofunika zomwe ndizovuta kapena zosatheka kuzikwaniritsa, zomwe zimatsogolera alimi osowa ndalama. Zomwe Mark Rutte adakhala tsiku dzulo akumvera alimi (kuyankhula mwamakungu kenako osachitapo kanthu) zili zofanana ndi kuchotsedwa kwa mpweya wa Groningen ndi zivomezi zomwe zimadzetsa: Nthawi ndi nthawi wandale amafufuza zomwe akuchita. ndipo aloleni anthu awombere. Rutte atha kupita kumsonkhano wa alimiwo ndi chidaliro, podziwa kuti boma la Dutch lakhala ndi ndalama kwa zaka zambiri pa network ya pawns pantchito iliyonse; gulu la Inoffizieller Mitarbeiter monga olamulidwa ndi otsutsa pamagawo onse azigawo. Monga wosewera omwe angadzitchule kuti 'prime minister', sayenera kuopa kuukiridwa kwenikweni, chifukwa alimi omwe adzapulumutsidwe m'mavuto onse mwina ali m'gululi ndipo amakhala chete.

Chifukwa chakuti simungathe kuyesa mpweya wa nayitrogeni, ngati mulibe tanthauzo lomveka la ndani kapena lomwe limatulutsa nitrogen, muli ndi vuto. Mwachitsanzo, kodi ng'ombe imatulutsa mpweya wa nayitrogeni ikafika? Ayi, pali phula la nayitrogeni mkodzo ndi poo, koma ng'ombe siyitulutsa mpweya wa nayitrogeni. Mpweya wa nayitrogeni nthawi zina umagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi alimi, mwachitsanzo poletsa kukula kwa udzu kapena kusunga zipatso, koma sizikunena zambiri komanso, gasi wa nayitrogeni alibe vuto komanso gasi wabwino. Chifukwa chake alimi amayenera kupeza chida chowerengera, chomwe boma limawasankhira chomwe amachidetsa nayitrogeni. Mapeto ake zimakhala ammonia chifukwa cha zomwe zili mumanyowa ndi mkodzo. Asitrogeni limakhalabe liwu losankhidwa pazifukwa zabodza komanso pulogalamu yoyambira "kuti mumakwaniritsa". Chifukwa chiyani sichoncho? kuipitsa kwa ammonia adatchulidwa ndipo kodi timakonda kumva dzina lomwe limatikumbutsa za kukwezeka? Monga tafotokozera: ndizomwe timatcha 'subliminal programming'.

Ndondomeko zaposachedwa kwambiri kuchokera kwa ochita zisangalalo The Hague ndikuti kuthamanga kwambiri pamisewu kuyenera kuchepetsedwa. Ndipo pali china china chokhudza kumanga? Kodi mumamvetsetsa? Zikuwoneka kuti pakuyenera kukhala alimi ochepa, chifukwa tikufuna kuti timange nyumba zambiri ndi zomangamanga, motero kuthamanga kumisewu kuyenera kuchepetsedwa, chifukwa boma limatha kugwiritsa ntchito mabiliyoni ochepa pazowonjezera pamsewu. Malingaliro aliwonse akusowa pakukambirana kulikonse ndipo zikuwoneka ngati cholinga. Pali ena omwe amangoponyedwa ndi mawu omwe samakhudza chilichonse kuposa kumverera kwamatumbo (koma akupitabe). Sichikukhudzanso zomveka ndi zokhutira; Chilichonse mdziko la media, ndale komanso zachilengedwe ndizonse zachitika kumverera kwa m'matumbo. Pakadali pano, pali njira imodzi yokha ndipo ndikuti aliyense akuyenera kuyika ndalama zambiri mwa izo kapena kungokhala (monga alimi) amayamba kubanki.

Shell, mukudziwa kampani yomwe banja lathu lachifumu limachita nawo gawo lalikulu (lobisika kumbuyo kwa mitundu yonse yazomangamanga zokongola) lomwe lidayamba mu 2009 nitrogen mankhwala pa kuwonjezera mafuta ake. Izi zitha kupanga kutsuka kwa injini. M'malo mwake, zikuwoneka kuti sizinali choncho ndipo titha kunena kuti vutoli lawonjezedwa ndi mafuta ndi makampani amafuta. Vuto lomwe boma la Rutte likuyesetsa kuti lithe kupeza yankho kudzera pakuchepetsa kuthamanga kwa liwiro kuchokera ku 130 kupita ku 100 pama mseu. André L. Boehman (amene tsopano akhala bogeyman), pulofesa wa sayansi yamafuta, sayansi ya zida ndi ukadaulo ku Penn State University ku New York, adanena kale ku 2009 ku New York Times:

Mafuta olemera a nitrogen akhala 'akugwiritsidwa ntchito kwakanthawi'. Anatinso kuti mawu oti "kulemeretsa nayitrogeni" sanena chilichonse kwa munthu wamba yemwe sakudziwa zamankhwala owonjezera. Zomwe ndimadzifunsa ngati katswiri wamafuta ndi: "Chifukwa chiyani adachulukitsa nayitrogeni, chifukwa izi zimawonjezera mpweya wa NOx?"

Kuphatikiza kwa mankhwala okhala ndi nayitrogeni m'mafuta ndiye chifukwa chake. Njira yothetsera vutoli iyenera kupezeka kumeneko: ndi iwo omwe amapereka mafuta; Mukudziwa kuti mabiliyoni a madola amayendetsedwa ndi banja lawo lomwe limakhala mnyumba zachifumu ndipo omwe timapereka misonkho poyipitsa kuti demokalase. Ingochotsani zina zowonjezera za nayitrogeni!

Mulingo uliwonse womwe tikuwona anthu akuwuluka ndikuwoneka wokhazikika komanso zimangodalira pakukhudzika kwamatumbo omwe amathandizidwa ndi akatswiri omwe adalemba ntchito a Jeroen Pauw ndi mapulogalamu ena owonera TV. Palibe chotsutsa chokwanira kapena maziko olimba asayansi. Ndipo ngati pakutsutsidwa, kufufuza kwawo kuonetsetsa kuti anthu sakudziwa. Zonsezi ndizokhudza kumva m'matumbo, mapulogalamu ang'onoang'ono, komanso ochita masewera olipira omwe adakulowetsani kwambiri omwe anakuikani mu ubweya ndi mtanda. Malingaliro anga, kufunika kwa nayitrogeni kwa alimi kutembenukira mozungulira landjepik, pomwe boma likufuna kuti zikhale zovuta kwa alimi. Zovuta kwambiri kotero kuti ena amapita kubanki ndipo oyandikana nawo alimi atha kulanda malo ndipo malo ena onse amatha kupita kuboma kuti akamange zomangamanga ndi zomangamanga. Zowona kuti kuthamanga kwambiri zikutsika mwina kumabweretsa madola mabiliyoni ochulukirapo (kuchokera ku ma fae), komwe ndalama zatsopanozi ndi zomangamanga zitha kulipiridwira. Zoti alimi ochepa akupita m'botolo zipangitsa boma kukhala chisokonezo. Alimi awa akhoza kukhala bwino ngati antchito ndi anansi awo. Si zonse zokhudzana ndi chilengedwe; Zonse ndizokhudza ndalama ndi malamulo ambiri (werengani: ulamuliro wambiri, apolisi ambiri). Netherlands ngati malo oyeserera ku Europe ndi mayiko ena onse.

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Zowonjezera mndandanda wamakalata: nytimes.com

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  1. Matthijs van den Brink analemba kuti:

    "Mchimowo udakula bwino ndi chibakuwa," alimi adatero, motero sipangakhale nayitrogeni wambiri. Zomwe zikusonyeza kuti palinso nayitrogeni wambiri. Kapena kodi izi zimachitika makamaka chifukwa cha acidization wa nthaka chifukwa cha ammonia wambiri? Ndipo osati nayitrogeni wambiri? Komatu komanso kufalikira kosalekeza kwa manyowa sikwabwino. Kodi ndiye kuti mulibe tanthauzo (ngakhale liwu loti nayitrogeni sili lolondola)?

    • Martin Vrijland analemba kuti:

      Amoniya pawokha sikuti acidic, koma zoyambira; mwachitsanzo, imasokoneza asidi.
      Mawu akuti nayitrogeni afotokozedwa munkhaniyi ndipo sagwirizana ndi zomwe ng'ombe zimakhala ndizokolola zawo kupatula kuti atomu ya nayitrogeni ndi gawo la ammonia. Amoni ndiwothandiza komanso yabwino kwa mbewuzo.

      Zachidziwikire kuti mutha kunena kuti chilichonse chomwe chimanena kuti 'zochuluka kwambiri' sichabwino, koma njira zandale zikuwoneka ngati zikuzungulira ndalama ndi umwini wa malo (kapena kuchichotsa), ndi zofunika zachilengedwe izi ngati alibi

    • Martin Vrijland analemba kuti:

      Nkhani ndiyakuti Netherlands ali ndi ng'ombe zambiri motero amaphatikizanso manyowa ambiri ndi mpweya wa ammonia. Ngati izi zikhazikika pamtunda ndiye mbewu zomwe zimakonda dothi losauka - ndipo sizingathe kupanga nayitrogeni - zimavutika nalo. Zomera zomwe zimamera bwino mu dothi lokhala ndi nayitrogeni, monga udzu ndi lunguzi, ndizofunika kwambiri.

      Uwu ndiye mutu wankhani ... zimatikumbutsa za "mvula ya asidi" ya zaka zingapo zapitazo. "Zomera zomwe zimakonda dothi losauka ...", "Zomera zakutha" .. eya inde .. Tikuwonanso mawu oti nayitrogeni ndi dothi lokhala ndi nayitrogeni. Mawu oti nayitrogeni amakhalabe opanda chifukwa. Nitrogen imangopezeka m'mapikisano monga momwe akunenera m'chithunzichi.

      Ndikunena kuti: zonse ndi ndalama, malamulo ambiri ndi kunyamula dziko

    • Martin Vrijland analemba kuti:

      Chifukwa chake kuwerengako ndikuti ammonia ikhoza kukhala yoyipa kwa mbewu zina m'malo ena achilengedwe.
      Zosakayikitsa kuti zochulukirapo sizabwino, koma zonse zikuwoneka kuti zikufanana ndi chiwonongeko chokomera zinyama ku Netherlands. Malo monga alibi kuti mupeze ndalama zochulukirapo kwa anthu.

      Zitha kukhala zocheperako pang'ono, koma zikuwoneka kuti ndizokhudzana ndi kuyambitsa ndi kukhazikika kwa machitidwe azoyang'anira komanso za ndalama.

      Tawonanso njira yodziwika bwino ya 'asayansi omwe amatsutsana ndi zokambirana zovomerezeka amalimbikitsidwa ndipo ena omwe amatsimikizira kuti nkhaniyo imalimbikitsa' pa nkhani ya CO2. Funso ndiloti kodi izi zilinso pano.

  2. Martin Vrijland analemba kuti:

    Chidziwitso:

    Kupanga kuchepetsa kuchepetsedwa kwa mpweya wa ammoina ndi gawo laling'ono pochepetsera kumwa nyama. Mukuwona kuti ndi nyama zingati zomwe anthu amagula ndikudya? Vutani 'intaneti ya zinthu' (5G) ndikugwiritsa ntchito mosavuta. Izi zimafuna dongosolo la ndalama la blockchain ndi zinthu ngati ma smart metre mnyumba (furiji kuyeza zomwe zimalowa, chimbudzi chanzeru kuyeza zomwe zimatuluka).

    "Nitrogen" alibi, pamodzi ndi Hyp2 hype, motero ndi njira yabwino yokhazikitsira njira zowongolera.

  3. SalmonInClick analemba kuti:

    Ndipo ngati mlimi abwera ndi zothetsera, ndiye kuti izi ziyimitsidwa, chifukwa sizikugwirizana ndi dongosolo la padziko lonse la 2030. Kuletsa ufulu ndikulowa minda ngati kapolo ..

    https://www.rtvoost.nl/nieuws/320525/Ondernemer-uit-Almelo-Mijn-biologische-ammoniakfilter-wordt-bewust-tegengehouden

    • Martin Vrijland analemba kuti:

      Yankho labwino. Nthawi ina ndinayamba bizinesi yamafuta kwambiri ndipo ndinali woyamba kubweretsa zinthuzi ku Europe kuchokera kumigodi kuchokera ku Turkey ndi Australia. Tsoka ilo, panthawi inayake wogula wamkulu sanalipira mabilo, chifukwa chake sindinathe kupulumutsa kampaniyo. Mwini watsopano yemwe adagula kuchokera ku bankirapuse ali ndi zolemba zonse zomwe ndidalemba panthawiyi patsamba. Wabwino kwambiri tsopano ndi mamiliyoni ndipo wandithokoza chifukwa chogwira ntchito yonse ndi foni.

      Zeolite, makamaka Clinoptilolite, amasefa ammonia kuchokera kuzitaya ndipo amadzisintha kudzera pakusamba kwamchere. Clinoptilolite yomwe ndidapereka idavomerezedwanso ndi EU ngati chakudya chowonjezera. Ine ndinali woyamba kupeleka izi kuma famu a mahatchi ndi nyumba zazikulu za nkhuku (zazikulu-kuthamanga).

      Njira ina yomwe imagwira ntchito. Koma anthu sakufuna mayankho, akufuna kuthetsa bizinesiyo ndikugwiritsa ntchito bwino.

  4. Danny analemba kuti:

    Onaninso kuti boom idayamba ndi "ulamuliro wa nayitrogeni" kuchokera ku khonsolo ya boma.
    Kalabu yomwe Willen-Alexander ndi wamkulu wa.
    Chifukwa chake zikuwonekeratu kuti vuto limachokera kuti.

    • Kutentha kwa dzuwa analemba kuti:

      Chilichonse, makamaka zinthu zomwe ndizofunikira kwa anyamata mu script, zimawongoleredwa ku ungwiro. Chifukwa chake sizomveka kupita kukhothi m'makhothi awo.
      Sindikumvetsa kuti alimi, zomangamanga, etc. sizigwira ntchito limodzi? Zowopsa zimatsalira kuti mabungwe omwe akufuna china chozama, chozama, alowa mkati mwa anthu angapo. Dziko lotani. Mwamwayi tikukhala mu 'lamulo la malamulo'.

  5. Martin Vrijland analemba kuti:

    Ndipo nyuzipepala yayikulu kwambiri ku Netherlands ikhoza kuyamba kupanga zowonongeka, tsopano zikuwoneka bwino (chifukwa kuyeza ndikudziwa, zambiri) kuti anthu sakutenga

    https://www.telegraaf.nl/nieuws/1439735619/doorgeslagen-onbegrip-over-groene-maatregelen

    (omasuka kuti aziwerenga mumachitidwe a Incognito, koma ndibwino kuti musawone zopanda pake)

    Anthu amangokhalira kulankhula za nayitrogeni, koma sizokhudza nitrogen. Awa ndi dzina labodza, kupereka chithunzi chakuti mukumenya!

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