Iyini ngempela inkinga ye-nitrogen, kungani abalimi bekhononda futhi kungani behlise isivinini?

ahanjiswe IZINDABA IZIMPENDULO by ngo-7 November 2019 11 Amazwana

umthombo: nos.nl

Kubukeka sengathi kuyisishayo sangempela! Bonke abalimi ngokungazelelwe badinga ukunciphisa i-nitrogen. Leli gama 'i-nitrogen' selivele linamagama amancane 'ngokwalo' futhi okwenza indoda ejwayelekile ukuba semgwaqweni icabange ukuthi sibhekene nento ethile sonke esizoyikhipha. Cishe abaningi bahlobanisa igama ne-CO2 futhi umehluko awaziwa. I-nitrogen ngokuyisisekelo iyinhlayiya eyisisekelo emvelweni. Ngakho-ke igama elithi 'nitrogen' lisho i-athomu elingavela kuphela emvelweni njengefomu eliboshwe (njenge-molecule). Kungakho, njengomlimi, awukwazi ngempela ukunciphisa i-nitrogen. Isibonelo, unganciphisa i-ammonia. I-Amonia NH₃ empeleni iyalinganiselwa futhi iyatholakala, ngokwesibonelo, ekumbeni kwezinkomo. Ukuthi umbuso ufuna ukwenza okuthile mayelana nokunciphisa i-nitrogen ngokusobala kungukukhetha kwe-NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming) yokudlala abantu abasezingeni eliphansi. Ukwehliswa kwe-nitrogen empeleni kusho lutho. Yini oyinciphisa i-nitrogen igesi, i-ammonia of enye yezinto eziningi lapho i-nitrogen element yenzeka khona?

umthombo: indiamart.com

Cishe uyazi i-nitrogen ehamba phambili kuleyo nto engaphansi kwengcindezi enkulu ebhodleleni futhi kufanele uyithulule ngamagilavu ​​aminyene (noma njengasesithombeni esisebhodleleni eligxiliwe), ngoba uma kungenjalo iminwe yakho izokhulula: i-nitrogen igesi (N2). Lokhu kusetshenziselwa isibonelo ukususa warts. Lapho nje i-nitrogen iphuma ebhodleleni elinengcindezi ephezulu, iqala ukubila futhi ikhiphe umunyu. Inokushisa okubilayo kwe--195,8 ° C futhi lokho kuyizinga lokushisa lapho i-nitrogen ingamanzi. Ngakho-ke igesi yeNitrogen ibanda kakhulu futhi ngokushesha iqala ukuphuma emoyeni ovulekile. Ukuyigcina ingaphansi kwengcindezi ephezulu emabhodleleni ensimbi aqine kuyenza ibe manzi. Lowo ngumthetho wenyama.

Besivele sazi ukuthi kufanele sinciphise i-CO2. I-CO2 ayinakwenza lutho ngegesi ye-nitrogen (N2). I-CO2 isho isikhutha. Ngakho-ke lelo gama lihlelwe kanjena: i-di-oxide imele i-2x oxygen. I-athomu lekhabhoni elinama-athomu amabili ka-oksijini anamathele kulo. I-Carbon dioxide ikhiqizwa ngophethiloli ovuthayo onama-athomu wekhabhoni. Uphethroli, upharafini nodizili konke kuqukethe ama-athomu ekhabhoni. I-molecule kaphethiloli yenziwa, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ama-athomu ekhabhoni futhi, lapho eshiswa emoyeni (umoya-mpilo, ngokuba igesi i-O2), i-CO2 idalwa ngomlilo ophelele kanye ne-carbon monoxide (CO) ingaqhamuka nomlilo ongapheli. Ngezikhathi ezithile lokhu kwenzeka ngezikhathi ezithile kubashisi begesi ekhaya, kudaleke ukukhukhumala. Lapho futhi ungabona ukuxhumana okulandelayo phakathi kwe-nitrogen ne-CO2. Ngokwezezimali nasemhlabeni wangempela, laba bobabili abahlangene ngampela.

Uma abalimi kufanele banciphise i-nitrogen, kufanele banciphise okuthile okuchaza kwayo okungacaci ngokuphelele. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi abalimi abakhiqizi igesi ye-nitrogen. Igesi yeNitrojeni igesi ejwayelekile evamile kakhulu futhi imele i-78,1% yevolumu ephelele yesibhakabhaka. Qaphela ukuthi i-athomu lingatholakala kuphela emvelweni ngokuhlobene namanye ama-athomu. Njenge-athomu le-oksijini (O) kuphela uma, ngokwesibonelo, i-oxygen i-oxygen (O2) noma emanzini kwenzeka (H2O). Izakhi zeNitrogen zihlala zishintshana phakathi komkhathi nezinto eziphilayo. I-nitrogen kumele icutshungulwe kuqala noma "ifakwe" kufomu elisebenziseka isitshalo, immonia ngokuvamile. I-Amoniya yilokho abalimi (okungenani izinkomo zabo) abazikhiqizayo. I-Amoni iyasiza futhi iwusizo ezitshalweni, yingakho abalimi besabalalisa umanyolo phezu komhlaba wabo.

umthombo: wikipedia.org

Lapho i-ammonia idonswa izitshalo, isetshenziselwa ukuhlanganisa amaprotheni. Lezi zitshalo zivele zidaywe yizilwane ezisebenzisa izinhlanganisela ze-nitrogen ukwenza amakhemikhali awo kanye nemfucumfucu equkethe i-nitrogen (ammonia). Ekugcineni, lezi zinto eziphilayo ziyafa bese zibola, zithola i-bacterial andvelo oxidation kanye ne-denitrification, zikhipha igesi ye-nitrogen yamahhala (i-N2) emkhathini. Umjikelezo omuhle owusizo futhi odingekayo.

Njenge CO2, empeleni akukho lutho olunobuthi noma oluyingozi ngegesi ye-nitrogen. Eqinisweni, i-nitrogen igesi igesi 'le-inert' ngokwemvelo elingavunyelwe ukungena ekuphenduleni kwamakhemikhali nezinye izinto. Ngakho-ke ayinangozi, ayinabungozi, ayinaphunga futhi siyiphefumula usuku lonke; njengomoya-mpilo. Lowo oksijini okhiqizwa futhi yizihlahla ngenxa yokufakwa kwe-CO2. Womabili ama-CO2 negesi ye-nitrogen ngakho-ke amagesi amahle futhi amahle, futhi ezepolitiki manje (namaqembu ezishoshovu) athi ziyingozi. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ohulumeni abasezingeni lomhlaba wonke bayeyekethisa ososayensi ukwenza le ndaba ithembeke, ngenkathi kungenakuphikiswa okungenakuphikiswa kwemvelo, kwamakhemikhali noma ngokomzimba. Imibiko ebizokhombisa ukuthi bekukhona i-CO2 eningi emoyeni ngezikhathi zokushisa emhlabeni, kukhombisa ukuthi i-CO2 ingumphumela womsebenzi welanga hhayi imbangela. Singofakazi bomlingo wesayensi ukwethula uhlelo lwentela lomhlaba wonke kanye nohlelo lapho izindleko zawo wonke umuntu zingalandelelwa (imali ye-blockchain).

Kusukela nge-2015, abalimi babanjwe e-PAS (Nitrogen Approach Program). Sibona imibhikisho emavikini ambalwa edlule ngenxa yokubekwa kwezidingo okunzima noma okungenakwenzeka ukuzisebenzisa, okuholela kubalimi abaqothuka. Iqiniso lokuthi uMark Rutte uchithe usuku izolo elalele abalimi (bekhuluma ngoboya bese engenzi lutho) ucishe afane nokukhishwa kukagesi waseGroningen nokuzamazama komhlaba okuholelwayo: Njalo manje futhi nosopolitiki uvakashela into yakhe ayibamba. bese abantu beshaye umusi. URutte angaya emhlanganweni wabalimi onjalo ngokuzethemba, azi ukuthi izwe laseDashi selitshalile iminyaka kunethiwekhi ye ama-pawns kuyo yonke imisebenzi; inethiwekhi ye-Inoffizieller Mitarbeiter njengoba elawulwa yi-pawns ephikisayo kuyo yonke ingxenye yomphakathi. Njengomlingisi ongazibiza ngokuthi 'undunankulu', akudingeki esabe ukuhlaselwa kwangempela, ngoba abalimi abazosindiswa kulo lonke usizi kungenzeka nabo baphakathi kwaleli qembu futhi bazothula.

Ngoba awukwazi ukukala ukuphuma kwe-nitrogen, uma ungenazo izincazelo ezicacile zokuthi ubani okhipha i-nitrogen, unenkinga. Isibonelo, ingabe inkomo ikhipha igesi yeNitrogen lapho ifinyelela kude? Cha, kunenhlanganisela ye-nitrogen kumchamo nakuwo poo, kepha inkomo ayikhiphi i-nitrogen gesi. Igesi yeNitrogen kwesinye isikhathi isetshenziswa ngabalimi, ngokwesibonelo ukuvimbela ukukhula kwe-hay noma ukugcina izithelo, kepha lokho akusho okuningi futhi, ngaphezu kwalokho, igesi ye-nitrogen ayinabungozi negesi enhle. Ngakho-ke abalimi kwadingeka bathole ithuluzi lokubala, lapho umbuso ubanquma ngalo lapho benza ukungcola kwe-nitrogen. Ekugcineni kuvela ukuthi kuzoba cishe i-ammonia ngakho-ke lokho okusemgodini nomchamo. I-nitrogen ihlala iyigama elikhethwe ngezizathu zenkulumo-ze nohlelo olungaphansi "ukuthi wenza izinto zibe nzima". Kungani kungenjalo? Ukungcoliswa kwe-ammonia okukhulunywa ngakho futhi sihlala sizwa igama elisikhumbuza ukuthi kufanelekile? Njengoba kuchaziwe: yilokho esikubiza ngokuthi yi- 'subliminal programming'.

Amacebo wakamuva aqhamuka enhlanganweni yabalingisi I-Hague ukuthi ijubane elikhulu emigwaqweni kumele lehliswe. Futhi-ke kukhona okunye okunye mayelana nokwakha? Ngabe usayithola? Ngokusobala kufanele kube nabalimi abambalwa, ngoba sifuna ukukwazi ukwakha amakhaya amaningi nengqalasizinda, ngakho-ke isivinini emigwaqweni kumele sincishiswe, ngoba umbuso ungasebenzisa izigidigidi ezimbalwa ngaphezulu kwenhlawulo yomgwaqo. Yonke imigomo ilahlekile kuyo yonke ingxoxo futhi kubonakala sengathi inhloso leyo. Kukhona kuphela okufakwe ngokwemibandela engathinti lutho olungaphezu komuzwa we-gut (kepha empeleni usaya olwandle). Akusasho lutho ngomqondo nokuqukethwe; konke okusemhlabeni kwezokuxhumana, ezepolitiki kanye nokuzimela kwemvelo kumayelana imizwa yesisu. Okwamanje, kunomphumela owodwa futhi lokho wukuthi wonke umuntu kufanele afake imali eningi kuwo noma umane (njengabalimi) uya ngokuqothuka.

Shell, uyazi ukuthi inkampani lapho umndeni wethu wasebukhosini unengxenye enkulu (efihlekile ngemuva kwazo zonke izinhlobo zokwakha okuhle) eqale kumakhompiyutha e-nitrogen e-2009 ukufaka amafutha alo. Lokho kuzobe kukwenza ukuphuma kwenjini kuhlanzeke. Eqinisweni, okuhlukile kubonakala kunjalo futhi singasho ukuthi inkinga yengezwe emafutheni yizinkampani zikawoyela. Inkinga uhulumeni waseRutte manje azama ngayo ukuthola isisombululo ngokunciphisa isivinini okusuka ku-130 kuya ku-100 emigwaqweni yezimoto. U-André L. Boehman (osezoba ngumbhali wesibhakela), uprofesa wesayensi yamafutha, isayensi yezinto zokwakha nobunjiniyela ePenn State University eNew York, usevele wabika e2009 eNew York Times:

Amafutha akhiqizwe yi-nitrogen 'asetshenziswa isikhashana'. Uthe igama elithi "ithuthukisiwe i-nitrogen" alisho lutho kumuntu ojwayelekile ongazi ngamakhemikhali wezengezo. Engizibuza ukuthi nguchwepheshe wamafutha ngukuthi: "Kungani bengeze i-nitrogen ethe xaxa, ngoba lokho kuzokwandisa ukukhipha kwe-NOx ngokuphelele?"

Ukungezwa kwamakhompiyutha aqukethe i-nitrogen kaphethiloli yingakho imbangela. Ngakho-ke isisombululo kufanele sitholakale lapho: nalabo abaphakela amafutha; Uyazi ukuthi izigidigidi zamaRandi zenziwa yilowo mndeni ohlala ezindlini zobukhosi futhi esikhokha kuzo izintela kulowo mbumbulu obizwa ngentando yeningi. Mane nje ususe izithasiselo ze-nitrogen complements!

Zonke izindlela esibona manje ukuthi abantu bndiza bezungeze imsulwa futhi kususelwa kuphela ekusakazweni kwe-gut kwesekelwa ngabachwephesha abaqashiwe kuJeroben Pauw nakwezinye izinhlelo ze-TV zokuqonda. Akukho ukugxekwa ngokuphelele noma isisekelo esiqinile sesayensi. Futhi uma kukhona ukugxekwa, ukubalwa kwabantu kuzoqinisekisa ukuthi abantu ababoni. Imayelana nokuzizwa kwesisu, izinhlelo ezingaphansi, nabalingisi abakhokhelwe kakhulu, abathi ngamagama anoboya, bakufake emhlangeni. Ngokubona kwami, isidingo se-nitrogen sabalimi siphenduka i-landjepik, lapho umbuso ufuna ukwenza kube nzima ngangokunokwenzeka kubalimi. Kunzima kakhulu ukuthi abanye baphuke futhi omakhelwane babo abalimi bangathatha umhlaba bese umhlaba wonke ungaya kuhulumeni ukuyokwakha nowengqalasizinda amaphrojekthi. Iqiniso lokuthi isivinini esiphezulu sehla mhlawumbe lizophumela ezigidini zamadola ezengeziwe (kusuka ezinhlawulweni), lapho lezo zingqalasizinda ezintsha namaphrojekthi wokwakha angaxhaswa ngemali. Ukuthi abalimi abambalwa abangena ebhodleleni kuzokwenza umbuso ube lusizi. Abalimi laba bangahlangana kamnandi njengezinceku nomakhelwane babo. Akusikho konke mayelana nemvelo; imayelana nemali nemithetho ethe xaxa (funda: ukulawula okuningi, isimo samaphoyisa amaningi). INetherlands njengendawo yokuhlola kulo lonke elaseYurophu kanye nomhlaba wonke.

AbakwaLee qhubeka lapha

Ukufakwa ohlwini kwezixhumanisi: nytimes.com

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Mayelana Nombhali ()

Amazwana (11)

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  1. Matthijs van den Brink wabhala:

    "I-heath ikhule kahle futhi ibubende," kusho abalimi, ngakho-ke (i-nitrogen) eningi ayinakuba nayo. Okuphakamisa ukuthi kungabakhona ne-nitrogen eningi kakhulu. Noma ingabe lokhu kubangelwa ukwanda kwenhlabathi ngenxa ye-ammonia eningi? Futhi hhayi i-nitrogen engaka? Kepha-ke futhi ukusakazeka komquba njalo akukuhle. Ngabe-ke awunawo iphuzu (noma ngabe igama elithi nitrogen alilungile)?

    • UMartin Vrijland wabhala:

      I-Amoniya ngokwayo ayiyona i-acidic, kepha ayisisekelo; ie, ikwenza i-asidi ingathathi hlangothi.
      Igama elithi nitrogen lichazwa esihlokweni futhi alihlangene nalokhu izinkomo ezinakho ekumbizeni kwazo ngaphandle kokuthi i-athomu le-nitrogen liyingxenye ye-ammonia. I-Amoni iyasiza futhi ilungele izitshalo.

      Vele ungasho ukuthi konke okusho ukuthi 'ngokweqile' akukuhle, kepha i-ajenda yezepolitiki ibonakala izungeza kakhulu imali nobunini bomhlaba (noma bayisuse), ngalezi zidingo zemvelo njenge-alibi

    • UMartin Vrijland wabhala:

      Indaba ukuthi iNetherlands inezinkomo eziningi ngakho-ke futhi inomquba omningi kanye nokuphuma kwe-ammonia. Uma lokhu kuhlala emhlabeni ke izitshalo ezithanda umhlabathi ompofu - futhi ezingakwazi ukucubungula i-nitrogen eningi - ziyahlupheka ngakho. Izitshalo ezikhula kahle enhlabathini enothe nge-nitrogen, njengotshani nezimbabazane, zithola amandla aphezulu.

      Leyo yinkulumo esemthethweni ... isikhumbuza i-asidi "yemvula" yeminyaka embalwa edlule. "Izitshalo ezithanda umhlabathi ompofu ...", "Izitshalo ezisengozini yokuphela" .. yebo yebo .. Siphinde sibona igama elithi initrogen nenhlabathi enothile. Igama elithi nitrogen lihlala lingafanele. I-nitrogen yenzeka kuphela ezinkambisweni njengoba kushiwo esithombeni esihlokweni.

      Ngithi: konke kumayelana nemali, imithetho engaphezulu nokubanjwa komhlaba

    • UMartin Vrijland wabhala:

      Ngakho-ke ukufundwa okusemthethweni ukuthi i-ammonia ingaba kubi kwezinye izitshalo ezindaweni ezithile zemvelo.
      Akungabazeki ukuthi okuningi akukubi, kepha konke kubonakala kufana nokubhujiswa kokwephathwa kwezilwane eNetherlands. Imvelo njenge-alibi yokuthola imali eningi kude nenani labantu.

      Konke kungahle kube okuncane, kepha kubonakala sengathi kumayelana nesingeniso kanye nendawo yokuhlala ezinhlelweni zokulawula ubuningi futhi ngemali.

      Siphinde sabona indlela eyaziwayo yokuthi 'ososayensi abaphikisana nenkulumo esemthethweni bathola ukukhushulwa kanti abanye abagcina le ndaba bayithola ukukhushulwa' endabeni ye-CO2. Umbuzo uthi ngabe lokhu kunjalo nalapha.

  2. UMartin Vrijland wabhala:

    Qaphela:

    Ukwenza ukuthi kuncishiswe ukuphuma kwe-ammoina isinyathelo esincane esiya ekunciphiseni ukusetshenziswa kwenyama. Ngabe ubheka ukuthi bangakanani abantu abathenga futhi badle abantu? Via 'i-inthanethi yezinto' (5G) nokusetshenziswa okungalandeleka. Lokho kudinga uhlelo lwemali olususelwa ebhlokini nezinto ezifana namamitha ahlakaniphile endlini (efrijini ukukala okuyekwayo, indlu yangasese ehlakaniphile ukukala okuphumayo).

    I-"nitrogen" alibi, kanye ne-CO2 hype, ngakho-ke indlela enhle yokwethula izinhlelo zokulawula ubumbano.

  3. SalmonInClick wabhala:

    Futhi uma umlimi efika nezisombululo, khona-ke lokho kumiswa ngokunengqondo, ngoba akuhambelani ne-ajenda yomhlaba we-2030. Kukhawulela ukukhululeka nokungena emasimini anjengesigqila ..

    https://www.rtvoost.nl/nieuws/320525/Ondernemer-uit-Almelo-Mijn-biologische-ammoniakfilter-wordt-bewust-tegengehouden

    • UMartin Vrijland wabhala:

      Isixazululo esihle. Ngake ngaqala ibhizinisi lokuthengisa kwama-zeolites futhi ngaba ngowokuqala ukuletha lezo zinto eYurophu ezivela ezimayini ezivela eTurkey nase-Australia. Ngeshwa, endaweni ethile umthengi omkhulu akazange akhokhe izikweletu, ngakho angikwazanga ukusindisa inkampani. Umnikazi omusha owuthengile ngokuqothuka unayo yonke imibhalo ebhalwe yimina ngaleso sikhathi esekuwebhusayithi. Okuhle manje yisigidi sezigidi futhi wangibonga ngawo wonke umsebenzi ngocingo.

      I-Zeolite, futhi ikakhulukazi i-Clinoptilolite, ihlunga i-ammonia kusuka ezilinganisweni futhi iyakwazi ukuphinda isebenze ngokugeza usawoti. I-Clinoptilolite engihlinzekile nayo ivunyelwe yi-EU njengesengezo sokudla. Ngangiqala ukuletha lokhu emapulazini angamahhashi nasezindlini zenkukhu ezinkulu (ezisebenzayo).

      Elinye ikhambi elisebenzayo. Kepha abantu abafuni zisombululo, bafuna ukugqekeza imboni futhi babambe iqhaza elingcono.

  4. danny wabhala:

    Futhi qaphela ukuthi i-boom yaqala "ngokubusa kwe-nitrogen" kusuka emkhandlwini wezwe.
    Iqembu lelo uWillen-Alexander ayinduna yalo.
    Ngakho-ke kuyacaca ukuthi leli cala livela kuliphi icala.

    • Ukushona kwelanga wabhala:

      Konke, ikakhulukazi izinto ezibalulekile zabafana embhalweni, ziqondiswe ekupheleleni. Ngakho-ke akunangqondo ukuya enkantolo 'ezinkantolo' zabo.
      Angiqondi ukuthi abalimi, umhlaba wokwakha, njll. Abenzi ngokubambisana? Ingozi ihlala ithi izinhlangano ezifuna okuthile okujulile, okujulile, zifakwe ngabasubathi abaningi. Izwe elinjani. Ngenhlanhla siphila 'emthethweni'.

  5. UMartin Vrijland wabhala:

    Futhi iphephandaba elikhulu kunawo wonke eNetherlands kungenzeka liqale ukwenza ukulawulwa kokulimala, manje njengoba sekucacile (ngoba ukulinganisa kuyazi, idatha enkulu) ukuthi abantu abayithathi

    https://www.telegraaf.nl/nieuws/1439735619/doorgeslagen-onbegrip-over-groene-maatregelen

    (kukhululekile ukufunda ngemodi ye-Incognito, kepha kungcono ukungakuboni lokho okungenangqondo)

    Abantu baqhubeka nokukhuluma nge-nitrogen, kepha akuphathelene ne-nitrogen. Leyo yigama lenkulumo-ze, ukunikeza umbono wokuthi uyajaha!

shiya impendulo

Ngokuqhubeka nokusebenzisa isayithi, uyavuma ukusebenzisa amakhukhi. ulwazi oluthe xaxa

Izilungiselelo zekhukhi kule webhusayithi zihlelwe 'ukuvumela amakhukhi' ukukunikeza isipiliyoni esiphezulu sokuphequlula kungenzeka.Uma uqhubeka ukusebenzisa lewebhusayithi ngaphandle kokushintsha izilungiselelo zakho zekhukhi noma uchofoze ku- "Yamukela" ngezansi bese uyavumelana lezi zilungiselelo.

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